The Reliability Paradox Defining Reliability In 2017, Hedge, Powell, and Sumner (2017) conducted a study to determine the reliability of a variety of of behavioral tasks. Reliability has many different meanings throughout the psychological literature, but what Hedge et al. were interested in was how well a behavioral measure consistently ranks individuals. In other words, when I have people perform a task and then measure their performance, does the measure that I use to summarize their behavior show high test-retest reliability?

Introduction In this post, we will explore frequentist and Bayesian analogues of regularized/penalized linear regression models (e.g., LASSO [L1 penalty], Ridge regression [L2 penalty]), which are an extention of traditional linear regression models of the form:
[y = \beta_{0}+X\beta + \epsilon\tag{1}] where (\epsilon) is the error, which is normally distributed as:
[\epsilon \sim \mathcal{N}(0, \sigma)\tag{2}] Unlike these traditional linear regression models, regularized linear regression models produce biased estimates for the (\beta) weights.

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